PCOS infographic. Because it’s awesome.

I love love LOVE infographics. Seriously. So here’s an awesome PCOS infographic, made by yours truly. Please share this with sisters, mothers, daughters, wives and besties.  Women need to know how common PCOS really is and how many women are struggling but don’t know it. Men should know too – maybe she’s actually doing everything she can but still struggling with weight because there’s an actual medical condition.  Maybe she needs a little more support right now. Send it to your guy friends too, because men you can hand down the tendencies for PCOS to your children and there is growing evidence that men can be affected as well. So pass it on my friends! Pass it on.

PCOS infographic from dramyneuzil.com

PCOS made pretty. Pass it on folks – women need to know.

 

Want to share this on your own website?  Please do!

Link it back to me if you can. Here’s the code:

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Get the Most Benefit from Inositol for PCOS

Inositol for PCOS, or polycystic ovary syndrome,  is one of the best known natural remedies for this condition. Things get a little dicey though when you’re trying to choose a type of inositol and find the right protocol to help your body. Let’s review what inositol is, what it does and what is the best form or forms for you to take to help you the most.

What is Inositol?

Inositol is a naturally-occurring nutrient found in many plant-based foods like oranges and cantaloupe. It used to be considered a vitamin (vitamin B8 to be precise), but an essential component to a nutrient having “vitamin” status is the human inability to produce it ourselves.  When it was discovered that inositol can actually be made in the human body from glucose, it was reclassified. The bulk of inositol from foods is called myo-inositol.  There are many other forms that are significant for health, and they do different things but the other one that is important for PCOS is D-chiro-inositol.  In a completely-unrelated-to-health-but-kind-of-fun aside, inositol is also widely used in explosives (!!) and as a substitute for actual cocaine in TV and movies when they need to show someone snorting something up their nose (!!!)

This explosion is probably not caused by inositol, but it's more interesting than a picture of inositol. Inositol for PCOS is the bomb. See what I did there?

This explosion is probably not caused by inositol, but it’s more interesting than a picture of inositol. Inositol for PCOS is the bomb. See what I did there?

Why Would You Take Inositol for PCOS?

One of the main issues that face women with PCOS is the strong tendency towards insulin resistance or even outright diabetes. According to a 2017 study from the Journal Gynecological Endocrinology, Inositol, at a dose of 4 g (or 4,000 mg) per day has been shown to be as effective at sensitizing the body to insulin as the drug Metformin. This means that by taking inositol you are helping your body to utilize sugars more effectively and so it helps you to lose some of the insulin-related weight and even to normalize your menses.  Inositol is also well known in helping with egg quality and so helps to improve fertility. Inositol also improves ovarian function, reduces testosterone and helps to balance the LH/FSH ratios that are so important for normal ovulation. There are many studies showing all of this, but the best I’ve seen to date is this 2016 review from the International Journal of Endocrinology which compares the effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol for PCOS.  If the label just says “inositol” it’s myo-inositol.

What Does Myo-Inositol do for PCOS?

Myo-inositol is the form that is most commonly naturally occurring and the form that is most commonly suggested for PCOS. Here’s why according to the awesome review from the International Journal of Endocrinology above:

  • 4g per day is as effective as the pharmaceutical drug Metformin 1500 mg per day in improving insulin sensitivity (see the reference above for the research).
  • With improved insulin sensitivity come improved BMI – this means weight loss
  • Menstrual cycle normalizes with 4 g per day dose in about 50% of the women who take it – that is huge because typically women’s hormones are much trickier than that.
  • Helps to reduce LH and improve LH/FSH ratios which is important for creating healthy eggs and also for healthy ovulation.
  • Myo-inositol helps to reduce total and free testosterone, which is important if you don’t want to be the bearded lady (sadly it doesn’t seem to reduce the hair growth that has already happened. That’s what lasers are for.)
  • Helps balance blood lipids by reducing plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol.
  • Improves ovarian function. Woot woot!




What does D-Chiro-Inositol or DCI Do for PCOS?

D-chiro-inositol or DCI is being studied more recently for its effects on insulin-mediated androgen synthesis (this means excessive testosterone production secondary to high blood sugars). Normally we are supposed to convert myo-inositol to DCI, but some people don’t do this very well (and many of those people have PCOS). The suggested dose is 600 mg for women 130 lbs or under, 600 mg twice per day for women who are over 130 pounds.

  • Improves insulin sensitivity through a different pathway than myo-inositol (by using an IPG mediator).
  • Reduces total and free testosterone through the same mechanism myo-inositol does.
  • Helps those women who can’t convert myo-inostiol to DCI
  • Especially helpful for PCOS if you’re overweight. Not as much if you’re the “skinny” type of PCOS
  • DCI is less effective for women with thyroid disease.

What if I Take Both Types of Inositol for PCOS?

Actually, research is showing this is the best course of action in comparison studies. It’s essentially the most effective scenario because the types of inositol complement each other and you don’t have to rely on your body being able to convert anything.  Studies show:

  • The combination of the two inositol for PCOS gets the same or better blood sugar control, far faster (meaningful change in only 12 weeks for the combo).
  • Restores ovulation
  • Reduces fasting insulin and fasting glucose
  • Decreases LH
  • Decreases free testosterone
  • Increases Estradiol
  • Increases Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (which further reduces the negative effects of testosterone).

So, inositol for PCOS?  That’s a big YES.  Given the effects on ovaries and egg quality (as well as sperm quality for the men) it’s becoming commonly used in fertility treatments too, whether you’ve got PCOS or not.

 



Is gallbladder sludge linked to your gut bacteria?

Gallbladder sludge is an initial step in the development of gallstones. It causes many people pain but is arguably too early for surgery.  There are, of course, many natural ways to address this issue including a basic protocol, lecithin, and castor oil packs and research is indicating that probiotics might be helpful as well. While it stands to reason that a healthy digestive tract, i.e. one with a thriving colony of beneficial bacteria, will help protect against any digestive disease it is still nice to see the results on paper.

This study, published in the online journal PLoSOne, was actually conducted on different types of mice. These mice were from four groups of genetically related strains that were purchased from different vendors with a very different treatment of the mice in terms of their good bacteria. The researchers use genetically similar mice because genetics plays a role in gallbladder stone and sludge development so having similar genetics eliminates that variable and puts all the mice on an even playing field. The groups of mice differed mostly in their gut flora.  One vendor maintains the mice in a germ-free environment but doesn’t introduce any good bacteria. Another colonizes the mice with a healthy bacterial flora and then maintains a pathogen-free environment after that.

Good gut bacteria like these may be able to help prevent gallbladder sludge and stones. Image from Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH

Good gut bacteria like these may be able to help prevent gallbladder sludge and stones. Image from Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH

All of the mice were fed a “lithogenic diet”  meaning a diet that is known to induce gallstones. This diet was essentially similar to a high-fat human diet. Specifically 1% cholesterol, 15% triglycerides and 0.5% cholic acid (one of the components of bile – in humans we would produce this naturally). Results were based on gallbladder weight, the percentage of mucin (or mucus) in the bile, cholesterol crystal formation, sandy stone formation, and presence or absence of true cholesterol stones.




The study found that the mice with the good flora were more resistant to gallbladder sludge than the mice without the good flora. The total gallbladder weight was lower which is important because it represents a measurable way to test inflammation. Inflamed gallbladders grow thicker walls that have a higher content of immune cells and inflammatory particles.  Also the mice without the good flora showed higher percentages of mucin and researchers were able to determine that the good bacteria actually influence the gene expression of those mice.  Healthy gut bacteria is able to down-regulate the action of mucin genes, which contribute to mucus formation in the digestive tract.

Actual cholesterol crystal formation, sandy stone formation and cholesterol stones were also all significantly less in the mice with healthy gut flora.

What Does This Mean for Humans With Gallbladder Sludge?

Mice aren’t people, and although this is certainly something to think about, we can’t jump to the conclusion that gallbladder sludge can be prevented by good bacteria.  We can, however, use common sense to say that chances are having healthy digestive bacteria can help our bodies to maintain healthy digestion. That means that gut inflammation will probably be lower with good flora, there will probably be less mucus, and digestive processes will run more smoothly.  Logically it makes sense that this would lead to less gallbladder sludge formation.

How Do I Get Healthy Gut Flora?

Of course, there are a million probiotic formulas out there all claiming to be the “best” and as a consumer, it can be very difficult to wade through unless there is specific research on a specific product for the specific issue you’re having (which happens only in a handful of cases). There are not any products currently on the market which are researched for gallbladder sludge.  There are a number of ways to increase your good bacteria, many of which are from food.

Increasing Your Good Gut Flora

Your gut bacteria are 100 trillion friends you didn’t know you had. Take care of them!

  • Reduce Antibiotic Use. If at all possible, minimize or eliminate all antibiotics from your life.  Life-threatening illnesses are a different matter and some situations do require antibiotics but work with your doctor to minimize usage that is not absolutely necessary. Antibiotics kill off your good bacteria along with any bad bacteria and overuse is linked to obesity, serious digestive disease along with the more globally threatening antibiotic resistant bacteria.
  • Moderate Processed Foods. Processed foods are typically filled with preservatives, emulsifiers, stabilizers, colors and other chemicals that are foreign to your body and to your more fragile gut flora.  A whole food diet has been shown to foster a very different digestive environment than a processed food diet and so eating foods with fewer chemicals will help your host of tiny helpers.
  • Increase Dietary Fiber.  If you’ve read this blog before you probably know I’m a big fan of fiber. Fiber, especially soluble fiber, helps to feed the good bacteria and provides material for fermentation in your gut.  All of those good bacteria really like fermentation and need the “prebiotics” or bacteria food that the fiber provides.
  • Get More Fermented Foods. Naturally fermented foods like yogurt, kefir, sourkraut and other fermented veggies like spicy kimchee are all rich sources of good bacteria and can help to reintroduce those good strains into your digestion.
  • Grow Some (Organic) Veggies. Many of our good bacteria are soil microorganisms that we are supposed to through contact with, well, soil.  We are supposed to have these good bacteria from the earth and historically we would have got plenty of them by gardening, harvesting, farming and eating vegetables that aren’t “sanitized” before being put on grocery store shelves or irradiated to prevent foreign plant diseases from entering the country with produce. So growing some of your own or buying from a good local organic grower.  Rinsing your veggies as you normally would won’t eliminate all of the healthy bacteria so as long as they haven’t been sprayed with pesticides and herbicides they’re a great source of some of your most potent good flora.
  • Take a Supplement.  The supplements are always an option if that is easiest for you, but don’t forget to do some of the rest of it too. In terms of supplements, every digestive tract is different so it can be helpful to rotate through different types of products with different strains of beneficial bacteria because there isn’t a great way to predict which strains will colonize best in your system.

 

 



MTHFR C677T Superpower: Prostate Cancer Protection.

There could be benefits of MTHFR C677T mutation. Who knew? © Patrimonio Designs Limited | Dreamstime Stock Photos

There could be benefits of MTHFR C677T mutation. Who knew? © Patrimonio Designs Limited | Dreamstime Stock Photos

I am so happy to report that the MTHFR C677T mutation now comes with a superpower, and it’s prostate cancer protection.  It’s not quite X-Men worthy and I have to admit mind control might be a bit cooler, but protection against one of the most common forms of cancer is nothing to scoff at.

The association between MTHFR mutation and prostate cancer has been unclear, with some studies showing increased risk, some studies showing no change and some showing decreased risk, so the information can be difficult to wade through. A recent research study conducted in Shanghai and published in Scientific Reports shows that C677T polymorphisms, whether they are homozygous or heterozygous, are actually protective against prostate cancer although they are quick to say that this study was conducted on the Han Chinese population in Shanghai and that the results may be different for different ethnic groups.

The study shows that intracellular homocysteine levels are slightly elevated when the C677T mutation is present and that elevated homocysteine actually helps to encourage damaged cells, such as precancerous and cancerous cells, to die off the way they should, rather than proliferating into full blown cancer. In unfortunate news, a recent meta-analysis published in Genetics and Molecular Research, showed that this association may not exist in caucasian males and that in this population C677T mutation may not have any effect on prostate cancer. Interestingly, this same meta-analysis showed that the A1298C mutation might have a slight protective effect against prostate cancer in European males.




The most important thing to remember, is that almost every mutation that exists in humans or animals has a double edge – it often has some drawbacks, but typically benefits too or the members of the population with that mutation would die out.  MTHFR seems to be, if anything, becoming more common so I suspect in years to come we will find many other benefits associated with it.



Am I Overmethylated? MTHFR Questions.

Overmethylated vs. undermethylated seems to be one of those things that everyone defines a different way, so let’s talk about it and see if we can bring some clarity. The terms overmethylation and undermethylation make the most sense to me as the Walsh Research Institute uses them.  These are general physical tendencies based on the sum of your genetics, nutritional status and body burden. There isn’t one gene or genetic defect alone that can account for them – so just because you have an MTHFR C677T mutation doesn’t actually mean you’re over or under methylated (although it would be one factor that might push the balance to undermethylation).  Dr. Walsh describes one’s methylation status as being like a tug of war between opposing factors. Many of those are genetic and some are nutritional or environmental.

Overmethylation MTHFR

This is less common than undermethylation. According to Dr. Walsh’s research, 70% of the population are normal methylators, 22% are undermethylators and 8% are overmethylators. Overmethylation in this context means that the methylation cycle as a whole is sped up, or downstream reactions that use SAMe (the ultimate product of the methylation cycle) are compromised in such a way that there is too much SAMe floating around wanting to methylate something.

  • Clinically overmethylators are more likely to have agitated or anxious conditions. Frequently panic or anxiety attacks (64% of panic/anxiety clients at the Walsh Research Institute), paranoid schizophrenia (52% of paranoid schizophrenic clients at WRI were overmethylators), ADHD (28%), behaviour disorders (23%), depression (18%). Depression  can occur in under, normal or over methylators but 18% of depressed clients of Dr. Walsh are overmethylators.
  • Mutations most likely to contribute to overmethylation are AGAT, GAMT, CBS and MT. MTHFR mutation usually pushes towards undermethylation (but I myself am compound heterozygous MTHFR and an overmethylator) Remember that the presence of one or more of these mutations isn’t enough to say if you’re an over or under methylator. The combination of all of your genetic factors as well as your nutritional state must be taken into account. The best way to determine is through symptoms and traits.
  • Other contributing factors are impaired creatine synthesis. This is because Approximately 70% of the SAMe from the methylation cycle is used by creatine synthesis, so if this is impaired the SAMe is used more slowly. This can be due to genetic factors (AGAT or GAMP) or due to deficiencies of arginine or glycine. Also impaired cystathione synthesis, or other polymorphisms in methyltransferase SNPs that account for the rest of the SAMe use.
  • Overmethylation leads to excessively high activity of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine in the brain.

    If this reminds you of you, you could be overmethylated. A photograph of Robin Williams taken by Michael Dressler in 1979, later used as a cover photo for Time magazine to highlight Williams.

    If this reminds you of you, you could be overmethylated. A photograph of Robin Williams taken by Michael Dressler in 1979, later used as a cover photo for Time magazine to highlight Williams.




  • Symptoms and traits of overmethylation include:
    • High anxiety
    • Sleep disorder
    • High energy, restless, must move and fidget
    • Verbose or talkative
    • Often high artistic or musical ability
    • Antihistamine intolerance (makes anxiety or restlessness worse)
    • Overly empathetic with others
    • Non-competitive in sports
    • Tendency towards food and chemical sensitivities
    • Less likely to have seasonal allergies
    • Histamine Intolerance (or HIT – this is essentially a food sensitivity to high-histamine foods)
    • Low libido
    • Dry eyes and mouth
    • Adverse reaction to SSRI drugs, SAMe or methionine (typically all make anxiety or depression much much worse.
    • An easy way to picture this type is by using Robin Williams as an example.

Is Overmethylated the Same as Over-supplemented?

No, although it seems that in a lot of popular literature on the subject people use the term interchangeably. So often you’ll see someone say that you might  be “overmethylated” if you are taking too much 5-MTHF or SAMe.  I feel that these are different things entirely.  If you have a tendency to be overmethylated then certainly you would probably feel worse taking something like SAMe, but even without that you are still an overmethylator (in my opinion).  Likewise taking too much 5-MTHF, doesn’t make you suddenly “overmethylated” it just means you’re taking too much.

Okay! I’m Overmethylated. Now What?

Interestingly the best way to balance the consequence of overmethylation, is still 5-MTHF.  This seems strange, because it is also the answer if you’re’ undermethylated, but the effects are actually coming from a different mechanism. Folate actually reduces activity at serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine synapses. 5-MTHF is the active form of folic acid, and you can also get it from foods, especially if you have some trouble taking the supplement.  Trouble taking the supplement is surprisingly common, although I think less common clinically in overmethylators (in my experience) than in undermethylators. Niacin or niacinamide can also be helpful for overmethylators as they quench some of the excessive methylation. Again, start slowly.

I Want to Start Taking 5-MTHF. How Do I Make This Easy?

Any time you start taking 5-MTHF, or increase your dose, there will be an adjustment period.  Here’s a whole post on it.  Just remember, start with a low dose and increase really slowly. This is changing the way your neurotransmitters work and doing some heavy detox work, so it’s vital not to overdo it because that is crazy-making. Start low and go slow.



Methylfolate Makes Depression WORSE! How Is This Possible?

Finding out you have an MTHFR mutation can be exciting, in it’s own strange way, because all of a sudden there is hope that you can actually help yourself and fix how you’re feeling, so it really feels like being kicked in the gut if you start taking 5-LMTHF and the methylfolate makes depression worse.  Have no fear, there is an explanation and also some possible solutions. Read on my friends.

Methylfolate makes depression worse! Don't worry - there is a solution. Great photo by © Philippe Ramakers | Dreamstime Stock Photos

Methylfolate makes depression worse! Don’t worry – there is a solution. Great photo by © Philippe Ramakers | Dreamstime Stock Photos

Why Does Methylfolate Make Depression Worse?

We recently talked about the terms “undermethylated” vs. “overmethylated” and although there aren’t great lab tests to show your status, typically you can determine your general tendency through their symptom picture.  Depression, however, can be ambiguous because it can happen in people who are undermethylated, overmethylated or people with totally normal methylation.  Although having the MTHFR mutation pushes many people into the undermethylated category, having the mutation itself isn’t enough to tell you if you’re under, over or normal. I myself am a compound heterozygous MTHFR mutant, but happen to have other genetic factors that make me an overmethylator – go figure.




5-L methyltetrahydrofolate (5-LMTHF) is suggested for everyone with a methylation issue – over or undermethylators.  It’s the first line of defence because it can actually help both groups to balance their methylation in different ways.  Also for depression specifically, folic acid or 5-LMTHF supplementation can be extremely helpful even without a known methylation issue because folate deficiency is a common cause of depression – so really for most people folate is beneficial. There is one group, however, who doesn’t respond well at all that that is undermethylated people with depression.

Let me clarify – anyone starting 5-LMTHF for the first time, or even increasing a dose, may notice some side effects for the first few days.  Starting to methylate differently can be messy and so this first few days isn’t enough time to know if you actually have a bad reaction. This is why we talk so much about starting with a low dose and easing your way up. If you’ve started with a low dose and you’re easing into it, but your depression gets worse and stays worse beyond the first week or so, then chances are you have undermethylated depression. This means methylfolate, folic acid and even folate rich foods are probably always going to make your depression worse.    Here’s why:

The link between Methylfolate and Serotonin

This is complicated because typically boosting your methylation cycle also helps your body to make more neurotransmitters via BH4 (we don’t need to go into it, but if you want a refresher you can read about it here). So 5-LMTHF is supposed to fix depression by boosting levels of serotonin, dopamine and other key neurotransmitters.  The problem is that 5-LMTHF, folic acid and folate all have a second effect on neurotransmitters, which is to depress serotonin through an epigenetic mechanism.

Epigenetics is essentially the study of how external factors (like nutrition, stress, oxidative damage, etc…) influence the way our genes express themselves. Folate and folic acid, according to the Walsh Research Institute, have an epigenetic effect on the SERT transporter.  The SERT transporter helps to reuptake serotonin after it’s been released. SERT is the target for many pharmaceutical antidepressants (SSRIs, or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors). SSRIs work because they interfere with SERT and so serotonin stays active longer, which means you get more benefit from this happy neurotransmitter. Methylfoate, folate from foods and folic acid, while they increases serotonin production through BH4, also increase SERT via an epigenetic effect.  This means they help your brain to clear out serotonin faster, thereby reducing the amount of serotonin that is available for you to use. Essentially this makes folate the anti-anti-depressant.  Sigh.

As a brief reality check – Walsh Research Institute is convinced this is happening (see the link to their presentation above), many MTHFR websites are convinced this is happening, and it certainly explains a lot of what I’ve seen clinically, but for whatever reason I can’t find any published research that says definitively that this is happening so please take this with a grain of salt.

Methylfolate Makes Depression Worse For Me – Now What?

Don’t worry – you have a couple of options.  If you’re sure this isn’t just your body adjusting to methylfolate (the symptoms last beyond the first week of moderate supplementation) then it’s time to check to see if you fit the profile of an undermethylator. If that sounds like you, and your depression is getting worse, then let’s look at your choices.

  • SAMe – Ultimately the end product of the entire methylation cycle is SAMe, so it can be a helpful work around for people who can’t take 5-LMTHF.  This is where all that methylfolate is going and although it doesn’t entirely cover the necessity for methylated folate, it does help with the depression. This is partly because SAMe is a very slow acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor – just like the pharmaceutical drugs only much less powerful. As with any methylation issue, start with a low dose and work your way up.
  • Methionine – This amino acid is a direct precursor to SAMe in the body, and uses the MATI/II enzyme (coded by the gene of the same name) to go through the conversion.  Because this turns into SAMe it can be a much more cost effective way to get the same benefits, which again is as a slow acting serotonin reuptake inhibitor.  The only situation in which that isn’t going to be helpful is if your MATI/II gene has an issue or something is interfering.  Most people find methionine to be effective though, so this can be a far less expensive solution. Again, start with a lower dose and work your way up.
  • St. John’s Wart – This has nothing to do with methylation, only with serotonin.  Happily, St. John’s wart shows similar effectiveness to SSRI medications for major depressive disorder, with significantly fewer adverse events.  Here’s the research study, from the Annals of Family Medicine that compares St John’s Wart (referred to by it’s latin name, hypericum) with SSRIs and other anti depressant medications as well as placebo. Go nature!

It should be said that while SAMe and Methionine will help to augment the methylation cycle, they still aren’t providing folate of any kind, so they won’t protect against the more folate dependent issues like neural tube defects in babies and issues with pregnancy and fertility.  If you have undermethylated depression and are considering getting pregnant it is vital to work closely with a doctor who can help you to get the folate that you need and also help you to offset the depressive symptoms that might come with that. Even though methylfolate makes depression worse,  in pregnancy it might still be necessary so please consult a physician.



If This Sounds Like You, You Might be Undermethylated

MTHFR mutation discussions can quickly turn into Greek and the topic of overmethylated vs undermethylated MTHFR is one of the Greekest. It seems like no two resources on the internet are talking about the same thing when they talk about it and so overmethylation and undermethylation are strange, kind of meaningless words because at the end of the day it feels like nailing jello to a wall. So let’s see if we can sort some of this out.

Whose Idea Is This? I’m Following The Walsh Research Institute

The terms overmethylation and undermethylation make the most sense to me as the Walsh Research Institute uses them.  These are general physical tendencies based on the sum of your genetics, nutritional status and body burden. There isn’t one gene or genetic defect alone that can account for them – so just because you have an MTHFR C677T mutation doesn’t actually mean you’re over or under methylated (although it would be one factor that might push the balance to undermethylation).  Dr. Walsh describes one’s methylation status as being like a tug of war between opposing factors. Many of those are genetic and some are nutritional or environmental.

Undermethylation MTHFR

This is the most common state. According to Dr. Walsh’s research, 70% of the population are normal methylators, 22% are undermethylators and 8% are overmethylators. Undermethylation indicates that the methylation cycle as a whole is slowed down enough that the end product, SAMe, is typically inadequate and thus causes symptoms.

  • Clinically undermethylators are more commonly autism spectrum (98% of autism spectrum clients at the Walsh Research Institute), antisocial disorder (95% of antisocial clients at WRI were undermethylators), schizoaffective disorder (90%), oppositional defiant disorder (85%), anorexia (82%), and depression (which can occur in under, normal or over methylators but 38% of depressed clients for Dr. Walsh are undermethylators).
  • Mutations most likely to contribute to undermethylation are MTHFR (C677T especially, but also A1298C), MS, BHMT, MAT and SAHH. Remember that the presence of one or more of these mutations isn’t enough to say if you’re an over or under methylator. The combination of all of your genetic factors as well as your nutritional state must be taken into account. The best way to determine is through symptoms and traits.
  • Other contributing factors are histamine overload and protein deficiency, as well as frank deficiency of folate.
Highly competitive? You might be undermethylated

Highly competitive? You might be undermethylated




  • Symptoms and traits of undermethylation include:
    • Strong willed
    • Highly competitive at sports or whatever matters to them
    • Obsessive/compulsive tendencies
    • Addictive tendencies (more likely to be addicted with less exposure than a normal methylator)
    • High sex drive
    • Tend towards high accomplishment and usually a high achieving family
    • Appear calm and well controlled (possibly over-controlled) but inner tension is high
    • Greater likelihood of seasonal allergies
    • Higher fluidity of tears, saliva, etc…
    • Perfectionist
    • Less likely to be compliant with therapies
Addictive behaviour? You could be undermethylated. © Francesco Bisignani | Dreamstime Stock Photos

Addictive behaviour? You could be undermethylated. © Francesco Bisignani | Dreamstime Stock Photos

Is Undermethylated the Same as Under-supplemented?

No! Although it seems that in a lot of popular literature on the subject people use the term interchangeably. So often you’ll see someone say that you might still be “undermethylated” if you aren’t taking enough 5-MTHF.  I feel that these are different things entirely.  If you have a tendency to be undermethylated then certainly you will probably need to take 5-MTHF, but even once you’re taking enough you are still an undermethylator (in my opinion), you’re just taking the right protocol.  Likewise taking too much 5-MTHF, doesn’t make you suddenly “overmethylated” it just means you’re taking too much.

Okay! I’m Undermethylated. Now What?

Absolutely the best way to enhance the methylation cycle is by taking 5-MTHF, or 5-L methyltetrahydrofolate.  This is the active form of folic acid, and you can also get it from foods, especially if you have some trouble taking the supplement.  Trouble taking the supplement is surprisingly common, typically it is an adjustment reaction to actually enhancing the methylation cycle because this changes neurotransmitter levels, encourages detoxification and encourages more than 80 reactions in the body that are methylation dependent. So some adjustment reaction when you’re first taking 5-MTHF is normal and actually a good sign that things are changing in your body.   There is one BIG EXCEPTION TO THIS, and that is if you are undermethylated and have depression.

I Want to Start Taking 5-MTHF. How Do I Make This Easy?

Any time you start taking 5-MTHF, or increase your dose, there will be an adjustment period.  Here’s a whole post on it.  Just remember, start with a low dose and increase really slowly. This is changing the way your neurotransmitters work and doing some heavy detox work, so it’s vital not to overdo it because that is crazy-making. Start low and go slow.

HELP! I’m An Undermethylator and I Have Depression.

My next post is going to be all about this because UNDERMETHYLATORS WITH DEPRESSION DUE TO LOW SEROTONIN CAN’T TOLERATE 5-MTHF, FOOD SOURCES OF FOLATE OR FOLIC ACID AT ALL. That’s a really big deal! Depression is typically characterized by low serotonin states and unfortunately 5-MTHF (or any folate or folic acid). The short explanation for this is that folate, 5-MTHF and folic acid all increase the activity of the transport protein that re-uptakes serotonin into the cell. Essentially this is the opposite of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (like prozac), it’s a serotonin reuptake promotor – meaning it makes the serotonin you have far less effective because it clears it out more quickly. There will be a whole post on this – I promise!